Tag: John Hopkins University

How our dogs come to us in times of angst.

Science confirms what every dog lover truly knows.

This was seen on The Conversation website and is republished within the terms of that site.

You will love it!

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Lending a helping paw: Dogs will aid their crying human

File 20180723 189335 ay9ify.jpg?ixlib=rb 1.1
I’ll try to be there for you 100 percent. Chris Gladis, CC BY-ND

Authors: Julia Meyers-Manor, Ripon College and Emily Sanford, Johns Hopkins University

From Lassie to Balto, pop culture loves stories of a dog coming to a person’s rescue. Anecdotally, people experience their dogs coming to their aid every day, like when one of us found herself “trapped” by her children under a pile of pillows only to be “rescued” by her noble collie, Athos.

But is there any scientific evidence behind these sorts of tales?

Researchers know that dogs respond to human crying and will approach people – whether their owner or a total stranger – who show signs of distress. We decided to investigate whether dogs would go a step further than just approaching people: Would they take action to help a person in need?

Dog/human partners come into the lab

We recruited 34 pet dogs and therapy dogs – that is, those who visit people in hospitals and nursing homes – to take part in our study. Dogs included a variety of breeds and ages, from an elderly golden retriever therapy dog to an adolescent spaniel mix.

When they got to the lab, each owner filled out a survey about the dog’s training and behaviors while we attached a heart rate monitor to the dog’s chest to measure its stress responses.

In the experimental setup, dogs could see and hear their owners.

Next, we instructed the owner on how to behave during the experiment. Each owner sat in a chair behind a clear door that was magnetized shut – there as a barrier separating the dog from its owner – that the dog could easily push open. We assigned half the people to cry loudly and say “Help” in a distressed voice every 15 seconds. The other half of our volunteers we assigned to hum “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” and say “Help” in a calm voice every 15 seconds. We ran the test until the dog opened the door or, if it didn’t, until five minutes elapsed.

Past research seemed to indicate that dogs would not help their human companions in distress, but it’s possible that the tasks to demonstrate “help” were too difficult for a dog to understand. So we adapted this straightforward task from previous research in rats. It seemed like dogs would be capable of nudging open a door to access their owners.

Lassie, Timmy’s crying in the other room

We expected to find that dogs would open the door more often if their owner was crying than if they were humming. Surprisingly, that isn’t what we found: About half the dogs opened the door, regardless of which condition they were in, which tells us that dogs in both conditions wanted to be near their owners.

I’m on my way! Emily Sanford and Julia Meyers-Manor, CC BY-ND

When we looked at how quickly the dogs who opened the door did so, we found a stark difference: In the crying condition, dogs took an average of 23 seconds to open the door, while in the control condition, they took more than a minute and a half. The humans’ crying seemed to affect the dogs’ behaviors, taking just a quarter as long to push open the door and get to their human if they seemed distressed. We did not find any differences between therapy dogs and other pet dogs.

Other interesting results came when we looked into how the dogs were behaving in each condition. In the crying condition, we found the dogs that opened the door showed fewer signs of stress – and were reported by their owners to be less anxious – than dogs that did not open it. We also found that dogs that opened the door more quickly were less stressed than dogs that took longer to open it.

In contrast, dogs in the humming condition showed a slight tendency to open more quickly if they were reported to be more anxious. This may mean that dogs who opened in the humming condition were seeking their owners for their own comfort.

Helping requires more than just empathy

Because both humans and animals tend to be more empathetic toward individuals with whom they are more familiar or close, we thought that the strength of a dog’s bond with its owner might explain some of the differences we saw in dogs’ empathetic responses.

As soon as the test was over, we let the dog and owner reunite and cuddle for a few minutes to make sure everyone was calm before the next part of the experiment. Next, we turned to a test called the Impossible Task to learn a bit more about each dog’s emotional bond with its person.

Hey, a little help down here for your furry friend? Julia Meyers-Manor and Emily Sanford, CC BY-ND

In this task, the dog learns to tip over a jar to get to a treat; then we lock the jar onto a board with a treat inside and record whether the dog gazes at its owner or a stranger. There have been some mixed results with this test, but the idea is that a dog who spends more time looking at their owner during this task may have a stronger bond with their owner than a dog that doesn’t spend much time looking at their owner.

We found that dogs who opened the door in the crying condition did gaze at their owner more during the Impossible Task than non-openers. On the other hand, it was the dogs who didn’t open the door in the humming condition that gazed at their owners more than those who opened it. This suggests that openers in the crying condition and non-openers in the humming condition had the strongest relationships with their owners.

Taken together, we interpreted these results as evidence that dogs were behaving empathetically in response to their crying owners. To behave empathetically toward another individual, you must not only be aware of the distress of another person, but also suppress your own stress enough to help out. If you are overwhelmingly stressed, you might either be incapacitated or try to leave the situation entirely. This pattern has been seen in children, where the most empathetic kids are the ones who are skilled at regulating their own emotional states enough to give help.

It appears to be the case with these dogs as well. Dogs with weaker emotional bonds to their owners, and those that perceived their owners’ distress but were unable to suppress their own stress response, may have been too overwhelmed by the situation to provide any help.

While everyone hopes their dog would help them if they ever were in trouble, we found that many of the dogs did not. People involved in our experiment, particularly those with dogs that didn’t open the door, told us many stories of their dogs coming to their aid in the past. Our study suggests that in some cases if your dog doesn’t help you, it’s not a sign he doesn’t love you; Fido might just love you too much.

Julia Meyers-Manor, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Ripon College and Emily Sanford, PhD Student in Psychology and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University

(This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.)

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Well done, Julia Meyers-Manor and Emily Sanford. Great work!

 

How well our dogs read us!

Eons of time since man and wolf, as in dog, formed a relationship. And it shows!

Regular readers of this place (and thank you) will be aware that not infrequently I repost an article that had appeared on the site Mother Nature Network.

But the one I am going to share with you today goes to the very heart of why the bond between humans and dogs is so, so special. The article is called Dogs know when we’re sad — and rush to help.

It’s beautiful!

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Dogs know when we’re sad — and rush to help

They’ve had thousands of years to tune their emotions to ours.

CHRISTIAN COTRONEO   July 24, 2018

Dogs proved indifferent to ‘Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star.’ But the sound of a crying human was a different story. (Photo: Irina Kozorog/Shutterstock)

Never doubt a dog’s heart.

Whether it’s a bump in the night — intruder?! — or a leap into the breach to restore forests ravaged by wildfire, dogs rush in.

And all that canine courage, even if occasionally foolhardy, is rightly celebrated.

But there’s an underrated quality that dogs possess: the everyday heroism of just appearing at your side, almost instinctively, when you’re in distress.

Want to test it? Try crying, and see how long it takes for your dog to sidle up next to you.

In fact, for a study published this week in the journal Learning & Behavior, that’s exactly what researchers from Johns Hopkins University did. They pretended to be trapped behind a door — and then alternated between crying and humming “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star.”

Even in the lab, a dog’s empathy shines through

Although it seems that we’ve always been sure that our dogs are emotionally tuned into us, this study represents the first time that empathy has been clinically tested.

And the dogs didn’t let down researchers, either.

When scientists were seemingly trapped behind a door that was magnetically locked, their cries of distress brought the test dogs over in a hurry. In fact, the dogs hustled to the scene three times faster when they heard the cries, than they did when researchers hummed “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star.”

“It’s really cool for us to know that dogs are so sensitive to human emotional states,” study co-author Emily Sanford, from Johns Hopkins University, explains in a press release. “It is interesting to think that all these anecdotes of dogs rescuing humans, they could be grounded in truth, and this study is a step toward understanding how those kinds of mechanisms work.”

Dogs in the study were stressed out, but they kept their emotions in check and focused on the problem. (Photo: Sjale/Shutterstock)

What’s more, the dogs demonstrated an uncanny knack for suppressing their emotions when there was a life-saving job to be done. Although their stress levels spiked when they heard crying behind the door, dogs managed to master their emotions and quietly, efficiently push it open with their nose.

A minority of the test dogs, however, did show a very human response: Their stress levels were so high that they were effectively too paralyzed to help.

Sure, it isn’t the biggest study — researchers looked at just 34 dogs — but it does confirm what we’ve always known in our hearts from living with dogs: dogs get us.

That’s because, the researchers suggest, they’ve been studying the human heart for a very long time.

The Lassie effect

“Dogs have been by the side of humans for tens of thousands of years and they’ve learned to read our social cues,” Sanford explains in the release. “Dog owners can tell that their dogs sense their feelings. Our findings reinforce that idea, and show that, like Lassie, dogs who know their people are in trouble might spring into action.”

Like earlier this year, for instance, when a corgi named Cora suddenly walked away from her human companion at the airport. She was found a few minutes later, perched at the side of a stranger.

It turned out that stranger was grieving the loss of his own dog the night before.

Now, how to explain those dogs who run for their lives when strangers pretend to break into the family home?

Maybe they’re smart enough to know when we’re faking it? Or maybe, at some point, the situation seemed so dire and extreme, those dogs just had to high-tail it out of there.

But we prefer another theory: The dogs were just going to get help.

Dogs are keen students of humanity — and they’ve evolved to read our emotional states. (Photo: Gansstock/Shutterstock)

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Always, and forever, we have so much to learn from our dogs!