Tag: Mother Nature Network

Dogs and seasonal affective disorder.

Back to dogs!

After yesterday’s giant essay I return to something to do with dogs. Albeit, a subject that is in the range of controversial – seasonal affective disorder. As published by Mother Nature Network.

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Can pets get seasonal affective disorder?

Winter can be as hard on pets as it is on people.

SIDNEY STEVENS,  November 12, 2018

If your dog’s mood takes a nosedive when the days grow shorter, it may be a case of seasonal affective disorder. (Photo: Tim Dawson Photography/Wikimedia Commons)

During the shorter, darker days of winter many of us turn lethargic and gloomy. But seasonal affective disorder (SAD) isn’t just a human affliction. The animals we share our lives with may also suffer from something akin to the “winter blues.”

Here’s what experts know about SAD in pets and what you can do to alleviate it. (Hint: Some of the same things that counteract seasonal depression in people also work for our four-legged companions.)

SAD pets

Starting in fall as the days get shorter and sunlight levels decline, many people notice their mood begins to dip. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, SAD isn’t just a weather-related funk, but a type of depression that fluctuates with the seasons and causes unpleasant symptoms like sluggishness, increased appetite, depression, social withdrawal and even suicidal thoughts in the most severe cases. It’s believed that lower light levels prompt a decline in the feel-good brain hormone serotonin and boost the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin.

No surprise then that pets, with their similar brain chemistry, may also suffer from the same kind of seasonal hormonal havoc.

Not a lot of research has been done on pets, but a survey by a veterinary charity in the U.K. called the People’s Dispensary for Sick Animals (PDSA) found that one in three dog owners noticed their pooch seemed down during the winter months. Symptoms ranged from aggressive behavior, inappropriate soiling and less interest in going for walks to lethargy, demand for more attention and increased sleep.

Like humans, cats may suffer from SAD during the winter months and require extra light and activity to head it off. (Photo: Bondesgaarde/Flickr)

Cats also apparently get the winter blues. One-third of cat owners in the same survey said their felines seemed glum in the winter and about one-quarter said their pet ate more.

Is it real?

There’s plenty of evidence that animals suffer from physical afflictions related to seasonal sun deprivation. One is called light responsive alopecia (fur loss that occurs in certain dog breeds during the winter months). But there’s not yet any hard science on whether pets actually experience SAD. Remember, the U.K. study was subjective, based on pet owners’ perceptions rather than rigorous research.

One alternate explanation for SAD-like symptoms in cats and dogs is that they’re picking up on the blue moods of their owners. Studies show that dogs, in particular, recognize human emotions and respond to them.

Or perhaps pets are merely bored during the winter months when they can’t get outside as much. Lack of physical and mental stimulation may push them into listlessness.

Remedies for winter doldrums

Getting pets outside for a regular dose of sunshine during shorter winter days can boost their mood and help ward off SAD. (Photo: Matthias Zirngibl/Wikimedia Commons)

Whether pets are prone to SAD like humans are or they slip into a seasonal slump for other reasons, there are ways to keep their spirits high during the chilly season. In fact, the same fixes that help people beat winter depression might also help their animal companions maintain a brighter mood. Here are some simple things you and your pet can try together.

More indoor light. Open your curtains and shades during the day to let in natural light. Position your pet’s bed near a sunny window and be sure to hang out there, too. Also consider light therapy that mimics sunlight. Buy a full-spectrum light box that covers the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared to near-ultraviolet and plant yourself and your pet in front of it for 30 to 60 minutes a day.

Providing pets with more love and indoor fun during SAD season is good for their well-being — and yours. (Photo: pandabearphotography/Flickr)

Spend quality indoor time together. Engage your pet more when you’re inside during the winter months with new toys, extra play and increased cuddle time. Multitask by enjoying these activities in front of the light box.

Enjoy the outdoors. Take advantage of mood-boosting sunny days by letting your pet go outside during peak daylight hours. Better yet, join in for a romp in the yard or a walk in the park (cats can be leash trained). Outdoor time has the added advantage of allowing pets (and you) to exercise, take in stimulating neighborhood sights and socialize with other people and animals. All are known blues busters.

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Whether or not pets suffer from this disorder isn’t really known, “Whether pets are prone to SAD like humans are or they slip into a seasonal slump for other reasons, ” the fact remains that the winter months for some dogs do have the cause to provide a slump. Whether you have one pets or quite a few, keep a close watch of them and love them through and through.

Bet they are wrong!

It seems to me, that although the science is good it can’t be perfect!

I saw this recently and, ….. well you decide!

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Dogs may not be as exceptionally smart as we think they are

Mary Jo DiLonardo

MARY JO DILONARDO

October 3rd, 2018.

Dogs have a scientific reputation for being rather brainy, but a new study says that may not be deserved. (Photo: Shevs/Shutterstock)

I know I’m biased, but I think my dog is brilliant. I’ve been bringing home animals all my life — from parakeets to ducks, cats to horses. But of all my feathered and furry pets, it’s no contest: Dogs are by far the brainiest. They are quick learners and great communicators with an incredible ability to solve problems.

But a new paper in the journal Learning & Behavior finds dog intelligence is “not exceptional.”

Although animal smarts have long been the subject of scientific research, recently there’s been a lot of focus on canine cognition. And that’s what triggered Stephen Lea, professor emeritus at the University of Exeter, to take a closer look. He was editor of the journal Animal Behavior, where he saw so many papers dealing with the mental abilities of dogs.

“Through the process of working as an editor [and] seeing all this research, I definitely got a sense that we as a collective had gotten a bit overexcited about dog intelligence,” Lea told Popular Science.

History of studying dog smarts

Dogs can learn problem solving, but raccoons often solve puzzles more easily. (Photo: Joerg Huettenhoelscher/Shutterstock)

Dogs and their brains have been studied for centuries (remember Pavlov and his bell?), but then were pushed aside for more popular studies with primates and other species. It wasn’t until the 1990s when dogs came back into focus. Lea wondered whether humans were giving dogs too much credit.

Lea and his coauthor, Britta Osthaus of Canterbury Christ Church University, studied more than 300 papers on the intelligence of dogs and other animals. They looked at research that covered three groups: carnivorans (another name for carnivores), social hunters and domesticated animals. Dogs fall into all three groups.

They discovered that when it comes to brainpower, dogs don’t particularly excel in any of the groups. There were species in each that were on par with or better than dogs in cognition comparisons. Raccoons, for example, seem to solve puzzles more easily, and hyenas seem to follow the cues of their pack more handily.

“Taking all three groups (domestic animals, social hunters and carnivorans) into account, dog cognition does not look exceptional,” said Osthaus in a statement. “We are doing dogs no favor by expecting too much of them. Dogs are dogs, and we need to take their needs and true abilities into account when considering how we treat them.”

Dogs do, however, stand out from their smart counterparts because they perform well in all three categories.

“Every species has unique intelligence,” Lea told Popular Science. “Their intelligence is what you would expect of an animal that is … recently descended from social hunters … that are carnivores and that have [also] been domesticated …There’s no other animal that fits all three of those criteria.”

Sounds pretty brilliant to me.

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It seems to me that science it taking far to narrow a look at our dogs.

For if one expands the range of qualities then one can include:

  • Unconditional love,
  • Companionship,
  • Sensitivity,
  • Consciousness,
  • Spirituality,
  • Bravery,
  • and a whole lot more besides.

Not only beautiful …….

……. but also intelligent.

There is something about a Huskie that takes one’s breath away. Not only because of the grace and wit with which they conduct their lives but also because the majority of them are working dogs.

So it was with interest that I read recently about the Huskies and wanted to share it with you all.

Here it is.

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Why do huskies have blue eyes?

New genetic study finally solves the mystery.

BRYAN NELSON,   October 4, 2018.

A happy husky with its characteristic blue eyes. (Photo: Nancy Wong/Wiki Commons)

A dog DNA startup company called Embark, based out of Boston, Massachusetts, and Ithaca, New York, appears to have finally solved the mystery as to why huskies sport their beautiful blue eyes. The study is the first consumer genomics study ever conducted in a non-human model, as well as the largest canine genome-wide association study to date, reports Phys.org.

The key, it turns out, lies in the dogs’ 18th chromosome. A duplication on chromosome 18, near the ALX4 gene, was found to be strongly associated with blue eye color. The ALX4 gene plays an important role in mammalian eye development, so this association is not entirely out of left field. And interestingly, the study also found this same genetic quirk in non-merle Australian shepherds, which also tend to have blue eyes.

This flies in the face of how eye color is usually thought to be determined in dogs. For instance, two genetic variants are known to underlie blue eye color in many dogs, but scientists have long known that these variants do not explain the blue eyes of huskies, thus the mystery.

In fact, even though we’re seemingly in a genomic scientific age, the genetic underpinnings of many traits in non-human animals are still largely unknown, even for humans’ best friends. Embark aims to change that.

For the study, which was performed in partnership with Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, researchers used a diverse panel of 6,070 genetically tested dogs, with owners who contributed phenotype data — physical traits of the dogs — via web-based surveys and photo uploads. A comprehensive, consumer-driven survey of this size is largely unprecedented.

“Using genetic data from the pets of our customers, combined with eye colors reported by customers for those same animals, we have discovered a genetic duplication that is strongly associated with blue eye color. This study demonstrates the power of the approach that Embark is taking towards improving canine health,” explained Aaron J. Sams of Embark. “In a single year, we collected enough data to conduct the largest canine study of its kind. Embark is currently pursuing similar research projects in a range of morphological and health-related traits and we hope to continue to use our platform to move canine genetics and health forward in a very real way.”

It’s all in the name of improved health care options for our canine companions, as well as helping curious human owners better understand the origins of their pets. Answering why huskies have blue eyes is just the first such mystery they hope to solve.

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What can one say! They are such beautiful dogs!

Saturday Smile

Another great news item about our wonderful wildlife.

This update about the Tiger population in Nepal was read on Mother Nature Network yesterday. Coming so soon after the positive news about the wolf population once again I wanted to share it with you!

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Tiger population rebounds, nearly doubling in Nepal

By Mary Jo Dilonardo, September 26th, 2018.

Photo: Amy Fitzmaurice/Living with Tigers

The number of wild tigers in Nepal has nearly doubled over the past nine years as a result of conservation efforts. A survey carried out earlier this year found 235 tigers in Nepal, up from just 121 in 2009.

To count the tigers, conservationists and wildlife experts used more than 4,000 cameras, traveling a 2,700-kilometer (1,700-mile) route across Nepal’s southern plains where most of the big cats are found.

“This is a result of concentrated unified efforts by the government along with the local community and other stakeholders to protect the tiger’s habitat and fight against poaching,” Man Bahadur Khadka, director general of Nepal’s Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, told AFP.

Nepal and a dozen other countries signed the 2010 Tiger Conservation Plan, pledging to double their tiger populations by 2022. Since then, the tiger population — which has been decimated by deforestation, loss of habitat and poaching — has begun to show positive changes. The World Wildlife Fund and the Global Tiger Forum announced in 2016 that the wild tiger population had grown for the first time in more than 100 years, according to AFP.

Co-existing in harmony

A tiger comes in for a close-up, thanks to a camera trap in Bardia National Park in Nepal. (Photo: Amy Fitzmaurice/Living with Tigers)

Although this news is obviously heartening, there’s a challenge that comes hand in hand with the growth: making sure people and tigers co-exist safely. A team of conservation scientists from the Chester Zoo in the United Kingdom is working with groups such as Green Governance Nepal to reduce conflict between tigers and residents.

The Living with Tigers project uses methods such as predator-proof livestock pens and changes in livestock management practices to help lessen the risk of tiger attacks on livestock and people.

“It is wonderful news for the entire conservation community around the globe and it demonstrates that ambitious conservation goals can be achieved when governments, conservation partners and local communities work together,” said Kiran Timalsina, chairperson of Green Governance Nepal.

“It also highlights the need for more concentrated efforts particularly focusing on human-tiger conflict mitigation to bring about conditions where tigers and the local communities with whom they share the landscape could coexist.”

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Don’t know about you but I feel I can handle a great deal of bad stuff about these present times so long as news items such as this come along on a regular basis!

For the next ‘Florence’!

A very timely article from Mother Nature News (MNN).

Hurricane Florence was not one isolated weather event. Across many continents extreme weather events are, regrettably, part of normal life.

The following article was published on MNN some six days ago.

I thought it should be shared with you all.

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How to evacuate your pet for a hurricane

Not all evacuation centers accept pets, so be prepared.

Mary Jo DiLonardo

MARY JO DILONARDO

September 12, 2018.
Residents deal with flooding after Hurricane Joaquin in Charleston, South Carolina. (Photo: Ryan Johnson/North Charleston/Flickr)

When you’re in the path of a hurricane, you pack up what you need and get out as quickly as you can to get out of harm’s way. But do your evacuation plans include everything you need for keeping your pets safe too?

“It is crucial that residents are prepared to keep their pets inside if they are able to stay at home or to take pets with them if asked to evacuate in the face of this potentially destructive storm,” said Niki Dawson, director of disaster services for The Humane Society of the United States, in a statement. “If it isn’t safe for you, it isn’t safe for your pets.”
Finding shelter

National Guardsmen patrol near Vidor, Texas, rescuing people and pets trapped after Hurricane Harvey. (Photo: California National Guard/Flickr)

One of the most important things is knowing where you can find shelter with your pets.

During the devastation of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, many rescuers and shelters refused to take animals, so many people either refused to evacuate without their pets or were forced to leave their pets behind. Dogs and cats were left to starve or die of dehydration or countless pets were sent to shelters, never to be reunited again with their families.

In response, the Pet Evacuation Transportation Standards (PETS) Act of 2006 was created to make sure state and local governments factor pets into emergency evacuation plans. It authorizes the use of funds for rescue workers including “the procurement, construction, leasing, or renovating of emergency shelter facilities and materials that will accommodate people with pets and service animals.”

The PETS Act is critical during an emergency, such as a hurricane, but can be misunderstood. There are posts circulating on social media, for example, insisting that all hotels, motels and shelters are required to accept pets during a hurricane.

The law mandates that the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) take into account the needs of pet owners when developing disaster plans and setting up emergency shelters. It does not mention hotels and motels.

In most cases, this means there will be pet-friendly shelters. It doesn’t mean hotels and motels are required to accept pets if they weren’t pet-friendly before the storm. Many hotels and motels sometimes lift “no pet” restrictions in emergencies, but it’s smart to call ahead and ask.

Create an emergency kit for the road

Pet owners should have an emergency supply kit for their pets. Keep all records in a waterproof container. According to the Humane Society, this kit should include:

  • At least three days of food and water in airtight, waterproof containers
  • Bowls for food and water
  • Current photos and physical descriptions of your pets
  • Veterinary records, medications and first aid supplies
  • Comfort items like toys and blankets
  • For dogs: Leash, harness, pet waste bags and a pet carrier that can double as a sleeping area
  • For cats: Litter, litter box and a carrier

Other Key Emergency Plans

Invest in sturdy pet carriers and get your pets accustomed to them before you have to use them. (Photo: photo_master2000/Shutterstock)

Preparation is critical for any disaster. Taking these steps can make a big difference when you’re trying to get you and your pet to safety.

ID your pet. Make sure your pet is wearing a collar and an up-to-date identification tag with your cellphone number and maybe even the number of a friend or relative outside of the area. Make sure your pet is microchipped and the registration is in your name.

Create an emergency contact list. Start with friends or family members who live nearby and can reach you or your pets quickly. Make sure they have keys, necessary codes or other information to access your home, grab the pets and evacuate.

Invest in sturdy pet carriers. Whether your pet goes to a relative or an emergency shelter, the animal will need a safe place to stay, says Toni McNulty, team lead for animals in disaster with HumanityRoad.org, a nonprofit organization that uses social media to fill the communications gap between those affected by disaster and those responding to disaster.

Try a pet carrier that’s large enough to hold food and water bowls and allows your pet to stand and turn around. Also, make sure it’s comfortable as your pet will likely be inside it for hours at a time during an emergency.

“Get it ahead of time and let your pet get used to it. Mark with contact information. If your pet winds up in an emergency shelter, that contact information is necessary,” McNulty says.

Carry photos that show you with your pet. To alleviate any confusion when it’s time to recover your pet from an emergency facility, be sure to carry photos that show you and your pet together. Attach those photos as proof of ownership on your pet’s crate. It’s also a good idea to make sure you have photos uploaded to the cloud, in case physical copies are lost.

Don’t wait for the second or third evacuation warning. If you live in an area that’s known for weather emergencies, act as soon as you hear a warning.

“When pets sense urgency, they hide and you lose valuable time trying to find them,” McNulty says. Keep leashes, collars and crates ready at a moment’s notice.

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Trust you agree that this is a very useful reminder of all the things we pet lovers should plan for. Indeed, there are some things that Jeannie and I should actively consider ahead of the next fire season.

Nonetheless, we sincerely hope it never comes to the emergency that this MNN article has in mind!

Let’s not forget our animals!

Hurricane Florence is no picnic.

Here’s the latest headline regarding this significant hurricane taken from the BBC News website at 14:30 yesterday afternoon.

US East Coast residents are running out of time to flee before Hurricane Florence hits the region as soon as Thursday evening, officials warn.
The storm was downgraded to category three with maximum sustained winds of 120mph (195km/h), but officials say it is still “extremely dangerous”.
Up to 1.7 million people have been ordered to evacuate across South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia.

All our thoughts are especially extended for the thousands of cats and dogs, and many other species I don’t doubt.

So it seemed especially timely and appropriate to republish a recent item that appeared on Mother Nature News.

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Helping pets in Hurricane Florence’s path

How rescue groups and shelters are staying ahead of the big storm.

Mary Jo DiLonardo
MARY JO DILONARDO
September 11, 2018
Button is one of dozens of animals rescued by the Greenville Humane Society from shelters along the South Carolina coast. (Photo: Greenville Humane Society)

When people are in the path of a massive storm, they prepare their homes as best they can and get out of its way. For pets and strays, the situation is more complicated.

As Hurricane Florence bears down on the Carolina coast, many in the animal community are already helping get these animals out of harm’s way. Shelters and rescue groups hundreds of miles away are taking in animals from shelters that are directly in the storm’s path. Fosters and adopters are stepping up to take local animals so there’s room for more dogs and cats affected by the hurricane. Others are sending donations.

As of early Tuesday, the Greenville Humane Society in South Carolina had already accepted 40 dogs and cats from coastal Carolina shelters and they are expecting another transport of 20 to 30 more by the end of the day, Julia Brunelle, social media and marketing manager for the humane society, tells MNN.

“We don’t know, in the coming weeks, how many more we’ll be taking in; it depends on the path of storm,” she says. “We expect a heavy influx at the end of the weekend and early next week.”

All three of the humane society’s buildings are at capacity with about 15 overflow animals housed in wire crates. They’ve lowered adoption rates, hoping to encourage people to take home current residents to free up room for animals that will be displaced by the storm.

“A lot of people are always waiting for the right time to adopt,” Brunelle says. “Now is the right time for the animals and when it is the most needed and when you’re going to do the most good.”

A van filled with animals arrives in Greenville from coastal Carolina shelters. (Photo: Greenville Humane Society)

At the Pender County Animal Shelter in Burgaw, North Carolina, they’re hoping to empty the shelter to make room for animals in need. As a result, all adoptions are free.

“After Hurricane Matthew in 2016, we took in over 100 animals at this shelter. We only have 100 kennels total, so being empty pre-storm helps us have space for the post-event response because we cannot turn animals away,” shelter manager Jewell Horton tells MNN. “If we hit capacity we have to euthanize for space, which we do not want to do!”

The shelter has already had calls for more than 50 dogs and cats that they are trying to help get out of the hurricane’s path; they’ve also taken in three miniature horses already. Shelter workers are picking up a pony and goats that were flooded out during Hurricane Matthew, knowing they won’t make it through this storm either.

Making Long-term plans

The Atlanta Humane Society took in 35 dogs and cats from Carolina shelters. (Photo: Atlanta Humane Society)

So far, some animals have traveled as far away as Atlanta. The Atlanta Humane Society has already picked up 35 dogs and cats that were in shelters in the path of Hurricane Florence. A week ago, they took in 35 animals that were in the path of Tropical Storm Gordon. If past storm history is any indication, they’ll likely take in many more.

Teams from Best Friends Animal Society are also on the ground, working to move animals from shelters in harm’s way to less-crowded facilities that are out of the hurricane’s expected reach. The group is also looking at the long-term picture, realizing what rescue efforts will be needed long after the storm is passed, says Kenny Lamberti, Best Friends Southeastern regional director.

“We learned a lot post (Hurricane) Irma and Harvey and even as far back as Katrina,” Lamberti tells MNN. “A lot of people and a lot of animals get stuck. We’re creating temporary shelter situations, hoping we don’t need them, but you never know.”

These shelters will house dogs and cats for an extended period of time until they hopefully can be reunited with their families.

How you can help!

A Best Friends team transports animals during Hurricane Harvey. (Photo: Erica Danger/Best Friends Animal Society)

If you want to assist animals displaced by the storm, there are plenty of things you can do. Rescue groups and shelters suggest monetary donations, first and foremost. That way they can buy what they need and don’t have to worry about storage, especially if shelters are damaged by the storm. Many shelters and rescue groups also have online wish lists.

There is at least one Facebook group where people can post what they need or the specific ways they are able to help, with offers of transport, fostering, supplies or anything else that might come up once the storm hits.

If your local shelter is making room for hurricane-displaced animals, you may want to consider adopting or fostering so they can make space in their kennels for more animals in need.

Pender County’s Horton points out that all sorts of help is needed, from adoptions to donations.

“We need animals out,” she says. “Donations will be hugely needed for post event care, especially for caring for the animals after the storm.”

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I know that all of you will side with Jeannie and me when we say that our hearts go out to these animals.

If any of you come across rescue groups and shelters who are seeking donations then do let me know. For I will publish the details here on Learning from Dogs.

The clouds above – Part Six

Everything you need to know about clouds – the end of the story!

Everything you need to know about clouds

NOEL KIRKPATRICK
August 13, 2018.
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Special clouds

Some clouds only form as a result of localized conditions or due to human activity.

The 2013 Powerhouse Fire in California produced flammagenitus clouds. (Photo: Chevy111/Wikimedia Commons)

1. Flammagenitus. These clouds develop as a result of forest fires, wildfires and volcanic eruptions.

Homogenitus clouds, like the ones emitted from this coal-fired power plant, are created by human activity. (Photo: thelefty/Shutterstock)

2. Homogenitus. If you’ve ever driven by a factory with a kid and they’ve shouted “Cloud factory!”, they have identified homogenitus clouds. This type of special cloud covers a range of man-made clouds, including rising thermals from power plants.

A contrail streaks out of some clouds. (Photo: G. Larson/Wikimedia Commons)

3. Aircraft condensation trails. Contrails are a special type of the homogenitus special cloud. They must have persisted for 10 minutes to be dubbed cirrus homogenitus.

A cirrus homomutatus, or a persistent contrail cloud, over Lille, France. (Photo: Lamiot/Wikimedia Commons)

4. Homomutatus. If contrails persist and begin to grow and spread over a period of time thanks to strong winds, they become homomutatus clouds.

Clouds form near a waterfall in Iceland. (Photo: Francesco Carucci/Shutterstock)

5. Cataractagenitus. These clouds form near waterfalls, the result of water broken up into a spray by the falls.

Silvagenitus clouds form over forests. (Photo: Glenn R. Specht-grs photo/Shutterstock)

6. Silvagenitus. Clouds may form over a forest as the result of increased humidity and evaporation.

Supplementary features

The final bit of cloud identification involves supplementary features that are attached to or merged with the cloud.

You could forge a horseshoe cloud on that thing. (Photo: Simon Eugster/Wikimedia Commons)

1. Incus. The spread-out, anvil-like portion at the top of a cumulonimbus cloud.

Mamma clouds appear over Leuven, Belgium. (Photo: Bart De Bruyn/Wikimedia Commons)

2. Mamma. Those hanging protuberances are called mamma, and they appear along the bottom of cirrus, cirrocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, stratocumulus and cumulonimbus clouds.

These altocumulus clouds have virga trails along their bottoms. (Photo: Kr-val/Wikimedia Commons)

3. Virga. If a cirrocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, nimbostratus, stratocumulus, cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud looks a bit like a jellyfish, chances are they have a virga feature. These are precipitation trails, or fallstreaks, and the precipitation never reaches the Earth’s surface.

Grab an umbrella, a cloud has a praecipitatio feature. (Photo: Silar/Wikimedia Commons)

4. Praecipitatio. If that precipitation makes it to Earth, however, then you have a praecipitatio feature on an altostratus, nimbostratus, stratocumulus, stratus, cumulus and cumulonimbus cloud.

Clouds with arcus features are pretty scary. (Photo: Sensenmann/Wikimedia Commons)

5. Arcus. These cumulonimbus clouds (and sometimes cumulus) feature dense horizontal rolls with tattered edges along the front. When the arcus feature is extensive, the roll can have a “dark, menacing arch.”

Tuba accessory clouds look like funnels reaching out from the clouds. (Photo: 7alaskan/Wikimedia Commons)

6. Tuba. This cone protrudes from the cloud base and is the marker of a intense vortex. Like arcus clouds, tubas appear most often with cumulonimbus and sometimes with cumulus.

Varying levels of illumination and thickness of asperitas clouds can lead to dramatic visual effects. (Photo: WikiRigaou/Wikimedia Commons)

7. Asperitas. While they look like undulatus clouds, asperitas supplementary clouds are more chaotic and less horizontal. Still, these supplementary clouds for stratocumulus and altocumulus clouds make it look like the sky has become a rough and choppy sea.

Fluctus clouds appear along the top of certain clouds. (Photo: Grahamuk/Wikimedia Commons)

8. Fluctus. These are short-lived, wave-looking supplementary clouds that appear with cirrus, altocumulus, stratocumulus, stratus and sometimes cumulus clouds.

Vigra or wispy cirrus clouds often fall from the central hole. (Photo: H. Raab/Wikimedia Commons)

9. Cavum. Also known as a fallstreak hole, cavum are supplementary clouds for altocumulus and cirrocumulus clouds. They’re formed when the water temperature in the cloud is below freezing but the water itself has not frozen yet. When the ice does eventually form, water droplets around the crystals evaporate, leaving the large ring. Interaction with aircraft can result in a straight line cavum instead of a circular one.

Tuba clouds will sometimes spout from murus clouds. (Photo: Giorgio Galeotti/Wikimedia Commons)

10. Murus. Typically associated with supercell storms, murus (or wall clouds) develop in the rain-free portions of cumulonimbus clouds. They mark a place of strong updraft from which tornadoes can sometimes form.

A wall cloud with a tail cloud. (Photo: NOAA/OAR/ERL/National Severe Storms Laboratory/Wikimedia Commons)

11. Cauda. Cauda are an accessory cloud to an accessory cloud, appearing alongside murus clouds. These horizontal, tail-like clouds are attached to the murus, and they are roughly the same height. They should not be confused with a funnel.

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And that, dear friends, is it!

Truly, how many of you stayed with all the episodes?

I must close by thanking both Mother Nature Network and Noel Kirkpatrick for putting together such a brilliant reference article.

Now watch out! You are just about to walk into that lamp-post!!

The clouds above – Part Five

Everything you need to know about clouds – the continuing albeit penultimate story!

Everything you need to know about clouds

NOEL KIRKPATRICK
August 13, 2018.
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Varieties

If we drill down further, the large scale arrangement of clouds give the genera and species a wide variety of presentation. Some clouds can exhibit multiple varieties at once, so the varieties are not mutually exclusive to one another, and many genera have a number of varieties. The exceptions to this are translucidus and opacus varieties; they cannot occur at the same time.

Cirrus intortus clouds bend and twist in unusual ways. (Photo: Bblanc/Wikimedia Commons)

1. Intortus. This variety of cirrus clouds has irregularly curved and twisted filaments.

Cirrus vertebratus are bony-looking clouds. (Photo: Laurent Julien/Wikimedia Commons)

2. Vertebratus. Have you ever seen a cloud that looked like a fish skeleton? It was almost certainly a vertebratus cirrus cloud.

Wave on, undulatus clouds. Wave on. (Photo: Axel Kristinsson/Wikimedia Commons)

3. Undulatus. These sheets or layers of clouds display a wavy pattern. You can find undulatus varieties in cirrocumulus, cirrostratus, altocumulus, altostratus, stratocumulus and stratus clouds.

Radiatus clouds form a nice line in the sky. (Photo: Unasia9/Wikimedia Commons)

4. Radiatus. The bands of these separated clouds run parallel to one another and appear to merge on the horizon. Look for them when you spot cirrus, altocumulus (pictured), altostratus, stratocumulus and cumulus clouds.

Cirrocumulus lacunosus clouds can cast a wide net in the sky. (Photo: The High Fin Sperm Whale/Wikimedia Commons)

5. Lacunosus. This cloud variety appears mostly in relation to cirrocumulus and altocumulus clouds. It is marked with small holes in the cloud layer, like a net or honeycomb.

Altocumulus lenticularis duplicatus clouds float in the Arizona sky. (Photo: Nicholas A. Tonelli/Wikimedia Commons)

6. Duplicatus. These layers of cirrus, cirrostratus, altocumulus, altostratus or stratocumulus clouds appear in at least two slightly different layers.

Translucidus create a hazy shade of sunny. (Photo: The Great Cloudwatcher/Wikimedia Commons)

7. Translucidus. A large sheet of clouds — either altocumulus, altostratus (pictured), stratocumulus and stratus — that is translucent enough to allow the sun or the moon to shine through.

Perlucidus clouds make sure you don’t lose the view of the sky. (Photo: Sahil Kapoor/Wikimedia Commons)

8. Perlucidus. Yet another variety of clouds in a sheet, these altocumulus and stratocumulus clouds have small spaces between each cloudlet that result in a visible sky.

This image of an altostratus opacus cloud demonstrates how completely it can cover the sky. (Photo: The Great Cloudwatcher/Wikimedia Commons)

9. Opacus. The opposite of the previous two varieties, these cloud layers are opaque enough to hide the sun or moon. This variety is found among altocumulus, altostratus (pictured), stratocumulus and stratus clouds.

Accessory clouds

As their name implies, accessory clouds are smaller clouds associated with a larger cloud. They may be partially connected or separate from the main cloud.

A pileus cloud appears over a volcanic cloud produced by Sarychev Peak in the Kuril Islands in Russia. (Photo: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/Wikimedia Commons)

1. Pileus. A small cap or hood that appears above the top of a cumulus and cumulonimbus cloud.

A velum accessory cloud forms around the middle of a large cloud over Maracaibo, Venezuela. (Photo: Giancarlo Rossi/Wikimedia Commons)

2. Velum. This veil is close above or attached to cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds.

Pannus clouds form along the edge of a storm cloud. (Photo: Anderson Mancini/Wikimedia Commons)

3. Pannus. Appearing mostly along the bottoms of altostratus, nimbostratus, cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds, these are ragged shreds of the cloud that make up a continuous layer.

A wall cloud with a cauda cloud tail forms over Elmer, Oklahoma. The lowest middle section of this cloud is the flumen. (Photo: Steve Willington/World Meteorological Organization)

4. Flumen. These are bands of low clouds associated with supercell storm clouds, typically cumulonimbus. Some flumen clouds can resemble beaver tails due to their broad, flat appearances.

ooOOoo

Please come back tomorrow for the last of this wonderful series about clouds.